The speed with which bodies were turned around at St. The crime scene was bloody but bodies were bloodless, a crucial forensic distinction. Mutilation was methodical and therefore based on some form of anatomy skill performed at high speed. To dissect a fresh body like this was a feat that could only be achieved with repeated practice. T 27 he dissector had to know what they were doing on the dissection table. If they did not follow standard techniques, then the person on duty would be up to his armpits in plasma in minutes.
Blood stopped coagulating after death but this did not mean that dissection was not in disarray. The stomach contents, festering food and blood, often flowed from fresh corpses cut by amateurs. The smell would have been overpowering and the corpse a bloody mess. If the body was kept for longer than two days, then preservation fluid had to be injected into the carotid artery.
The blood was slowly replaced by chemicals. In cases where the body contained a baby, the dissector had to be highly skilled to be able to extract the dead infant undamaged from the deceased mother for teaching purposes. It was not a skill that was learned arbitrarily from animal work or from human anatomy books.
Jack had been hands-on somewhere, at some-time, to have been this skilled at cutting up the victims in fifteen minute short intervals without being detected. There were no meaningless cuts. The organ [upper pelvis area of the womb above the vagina] had been taken by one who knew where to find it, what difficulties he would have to contend against, and how he should use his knife so as to abstract the organ without injury to it.
No unskilled person could have known where to find it or have recognised it when it was found. In the autumn of , that person or someone associated with the anatomy trade perhaps took basic dissection skills out at night with deadly consequences. Begg adds that the fact that most of the victims were street prostitutes, and their wombs subjected to a frenzied knifing attack, is not conclusive proof of a sex crime.
This is an important observation if we factor in the anatomy trade and its fast turnover of prostitutes.
Series 4 Ep 2-The Whitechapel Murders : Jack the Ripper
In the anatomy season of , women who worked in the sex trade were not in short supply at St. Preservation techniques had improved and most corpses could be preserved with chemicals for longer than before. On average an anatomist had a maximum of 7 days to dissect a corpse up to the mids, then around the use of stronger preservation chemicals increased the time spent on each dissection to over days.
The problem was that each preserved cadaver now looked less than human. Anyone who preferred fresh, female corpses would have needed to seek them on the street. A basic alteration in preservation methods could have been behind the motive for murder, coinciding with the time when the Jack murders started in the East-End. Whether they had assistance is an open question. Yet, as the murders went on, they would have been more wary of being solicited by a stranger. Others needed a few shillings for a lodging room for the night, offering oral sex in an alleyway. Free drinks at the local public house motivated some to walk the streets.
They all nonetheless were on the lookout for danger, more sensitive to unusual advances. Several women had also been in and out of Holborn, Lambeth, and Whitechapel workhouses. They were well known to the police and poor law authorities, knew a wide cross-section of the population, and were streetwise. This observation is noteworthy because all the female victims were left in a rather unusual physical pose of some relevance to the medical mystery surrounding events and the possibility of an accomplice. It is also the standard medical position when a woman is having a smear test, or internal physical examination to check progress in childbirth.
Yet crime historiography seldom discusses the possibility that a woman made the first initial approach, not a man. This would explain a lack of circumspection in all the cases. Maybe an intermediary known to the victims, someone who traded for instance in their stillbirths, whom they were used to acting as a go-between, made the first fatal move.
The actual attack had to be done by a man because of the physical strength needed to carry it out with such ferocity and quick skill. That, however, does not rule out the possibility that the women were groomed by a female accomplice, familiar to them from a workhouse infirmary or with whom they had done body deals on the street. Surviving dissection records confirm that women dealers and male traders walked the physical streets of Whitechapel in The ending of a supply partnership between like-minded individuals prepared to murder, might explain why the killings stopped as abruptly as they started.
This may be unpleasant to think about but it does merit careful consideration. Her face was attacked with a knife in a vicious frenzy, and her breasts had been severed from her torso. Her lower limbs looked like a dissected cadaver, and her major organs like the heart had been removed.
Her inquest report was distasteful and disturbing even for the hardened medical men present used to doing post-mortem work. Evidently the serial killer was angry, brutal, and unforgiving. Crime historians have long speculated as to why Kelly was singled out for such callous aggression and why there was so much blood shed on the bed she slept in. Either this was the culmination of pathological cruelty that had been building up to a crescendo of violence, a feature of some serial killings, or there was another motivation for the murder that the evidence-gathering never uncovered.
As part of the preparation for the series, the research team spent a great deal of time trying to locate anyone who had once lived in the area or knew someone that did. The evidence connecting Mary Jane Kelly to that business across other London teaching hospitals in the area is currently circumstantial but it might become more convincing once historians re-examine fragments of her personal story that may have been misread or misunderstood.
Others remarked that as a child she had migrated to Wales with her close family, learnt to speak fluent Welsh, and married a collier named Davies when she was sixteen years old. After he was killed in an explosion, she moved to Cardiff, resided with a cousin, and may have turned to prostitution to earn her keep.
By all accounts she suffered from ill-health and lacking the financial wherewithal for medical care she entered the Cardiff infirmary to get treatment. By the time that she arrived in London in , she was living in relative poverty. If as a former nun claimed she had a personal connection to Jack-the-Ripper it may have begun at this formative time. The body dealing trade was often associated with charities that gave people down on their luck a bed for the night and food from the soup kitchen in the coldest winter months.
It was not a place of last resort like the workhouse but it was somewhere to hide from the shame of poverty for those that had fallen on hard times. Mary Jane Kelly, young widow, former prostitute, possibly from a Roman Catholic background in Ireland, had a typical charity profile. The Refuge tried to help people to get back into work to start earning a decent living. But of course, this was also a place in which people lost heart and failed at life. In death, they were in destitution with nobody to pay for their pauper funeral.
In other words, this was an ideal location to encounter body dealers and their accomplices on arrival in the East-End. Providing for the possibility that what the nun claimed to her novice in was correct, Mary Jane Kelly may have encountered her killer in , four years before she was killed, and there may have been a connection to the Refuge, as well as the other murder victims in the vicinity. It was common for those involved to use a number of aliases, and indeed all the five female victims did this in their hazardous lives as a matter of course.
So resorting to an alias does not prove they were involved as go-betweens in body sales but rather that their life-styles were compatible with the modus operandi of an accomplice to the anatomy trade. Her former live-in lover, Joseph Barnett, a porter at Billingsgate market and fruit hawker, told the police that after she left the Refuge facing Dorset Street, Kelly told him that she became a prostitute in Knightsbridge. In the West End she was one of a number of young, pretty girls that may have been procured by high-class madams.
Kelly told Barnett that she worked for an unnamed French lady that ran an upmarket bordello, and this was why she changed her name because she visited Paris on a couple of occasions and rode in smart carriages with upper-class men. Something does not add up. Here then the historian needs to rethink the potential gaps in the misperceptions of how a life was lived, to try to tie the threads back together in a cold case review. In her life-story of a Tale of Two Cities perhaps Kelly was used to meeting medical men for sex in London on their return from Paris.
If , despite the limited evidence, her connection to the French lady that ran a bordello was in fact her first entry point into a shadowy medical world, then her nemesis started to unravel a lot earlier than the police realised. It may have been this connotation that an older nun who had befriended Kelly in knew about, which troubled her years later. What is known is that after the French Revolution it was a civic duty for everyone alleviated by charity or the state to have their body dissected in the national interest of France. It was also common for females to learn life-drawing by sketching the dead in anatomy rooms for a small fee.
This tradition of anatomical art also happened in London too. It started with the Murder Act and continued after the Anatomy Act came into force. Some females ran the anatomical shows behind-the-scenes at medical museums along Fleet Street. They likewise acted as a liaison for illegal abortions procured at night from the backdoor of medical museums. On the whole women employed anatomically tended to do casual work but all had some sort of basic education, could draw, and looked respectable enough to avoid bad publicity.
Most psychologists stress that people that weave tales to compensate for a mundane existence often do so by picking up and refashioning fragments of their life that have a semblance in a reality. So rather than Mary Ann having a Parisian set of adventures, perhaps instead she had known a medical man that had solicited her for sex and offered her other paid work, giving her a more comfortable berth at a West End bordello.
Looking at how she kept up appearances is instructive too. This would always be clean-looking and not pawned. Thus by way of example prostitutes on the Curtain Road of the East-End often sold their stillbirths to St. It made sense to use a woman in the neighbourhood dressed in clean black to make the deals. It might also explain the throwaway remark that Mary Ann Nichols victim one made on the night of her death. Another innocuous clue is worth considering here too. To the right is a door at No, 26 to a shop in which a barrow and other items was kept.
Essay on Jack The Ripper
The police insisted on boarding up the property because local people were squatting in it for the night, and this can be seen in the photograph. It is also worth noting that the shop was opposite one of the three public houses in the street, frequented by Mary Jane Kelly. Their innocuous nature was social wallpaper. It would explain why the women did not flinch when first approached. Perhaps Kelly walked up to them at the front and Jack the body dealer grabbed them from behind?
As the Jack-the-Ripper murders continued everyone agreed that Kelly was a very frightened woman. Did their partnership falter and Jack then take out his anger in such a brutal fashion?
All the buildings and murder locations were close to a main thoroughfare used by body dealers in the capital. They all clustered around a convenient road system. And, as we can also see, the first murder victim, Mary Ann Nichols, murdered on Bucks Row, died very close to this hospital venue. All body dealers preferred to adopt a route like this. In other words, what really links all five iconic victims is their geographic alignment within the body trade transportation routes out of the East-End. At a time when streets were stained with human effluent, a good road was essential to supply the needs of medicine.
For Mary Ann Nichols this meant that she did not just enter random institutions. It is feasible that this may have been her first contact with Jack or an accomplice, even though she may never have guessed it at the time. It was a crime-ridden parish and the main poor law institution was the biggest supplier of dead bodies to St. By all accounts, Mary Ann went back on the streets, was caught stealing clothes, and moved between lodging-house, doss sheds, and brothels. She accepted cash for sex, for as little as 3 pence, the price of a stale loaf of bread to eat, prostituting herself to get a shared bed for the night.
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Yet, the discovery of her body at 3. She may have been a trial run, and this could explain why her connection to Dorset Street was not as obvious to the police as that of all the other victims. Mary Ann did not tend to live in lodging-houses and used poor law institutions much more frequently than the others. This would have made her personal interactions more erratic on the street. Ironically it may also have placed her at the front-end of the body trade happening every night in the dead-houses at the back of workhouses that she was staying in.
As a servant employed briefly on the premises at Lambeth workhouse in she would have seen and known how all aspects of poor law life worked. Despite the medical mystery surrounding the reasons for her admittance to several infirmaries, during her time inside the premises body dealers were selling dead bodies of men, women, children and infants to Guys and St. It would be very odd indeed if she had not known about the body trade in some respect.
Or had she simply dossed down at the shed of No. Recently there has been considerable speculation that a pauper named Robert Mann, mortuary keeper for Whitechapel workhouse, may have been Jack-the-Ripper. Modern-day crime profiling, it is claimed, would expect a typical serial killer to have his life-story characteristics. In an intriguing book, Mei Trow, using modern forensic techniques, is convinced that Mann committed the murders because he had ample access to the dead, may have liked working with them, and got his hands on the first victim who was brought to him for safe-keeping.
The theory has received a lot of publicity but it has been criticised for lacking a convincing explanation as to why someone in a morgue might risk becoming involved in the crimes when under such intense police scrutiny. If one accepts that the police were aware of the operation of a body trade but ignored its day-to-day dealings because they were a shadowy fact of life in the area, then a serial killer would have effectively found the perfect cover story.
It was common for the authorities to look the other way when informed of a dealing dispute. By way of example, Alfred Feist a workhouse master of St. At the Old Bailey in Feist was charged with 64 counts of profiting from pauper bodies sold from the dead-house of the poor law premises he ran to Guys Hospital. Meantime, Hogg went quiet for a time and re-emerged as a body dealer to St.
And he had remarkable longevity since his so-called undertaking business remained connected to the medical school until the modern period. The body trade might yet then prove in a similar manner to be the solution to a missing historical context as to how the Jack-the-Ripper murderer remained hidden, calling for new and meticulous evidence-gathering.
We need to know evidently much more about all those working in small morgues and dead-houses of workhouse-infirmaries connected to the murders, since Robert Mann was just one of a number of attendants on the dead that police encountered in the course of their enquiries.
Each and everyone one may have had a connection to the body trade and by implication Jack-the-Ripper. Indeed documentary evidence has been found to suggest that Craig may have been the ex-husband of Mary Jane Kelly. It is postulated that she adopted an alias to disguise a failed marriage. The new book claims that Craig searched for Elizabeth now called Mary Jane who left the martial home after a brief marriage, turned to prostitution, and migrated to the East-End because her ex-husband resented her infidelity.
She hence adopted various disguises to evade his detection. The new theory posits that the first four iconic murders were blue-prints for the fifth killing in Craig, it is argued, covered up his intentions by making it look like there was a serial killer on the streets. His real focus was to murder his ex-wife out of emotional spite. To do so, he learned how to evade police attention as a court reporter. He murdered her in a brutal fashion to erode any potential links to him, smashing her face and mutilating the body. There would have been a lot of unpredictable events attached to the first four murders and no guarantee of escaping justice before being in a safe position to proceed to a fifth pre-meditated homicide.
It does provide a motivation for murder but not the skilled means of killing anatomically, or the ability to stage-manage all of the logistical opportunity costs involved. An unanswered question is therefore whether the business of anatomy had some sort of close connection in the Craig family history? It may have pre-dated the Anatomy Act of when criminals, not the poor, were subjects of the dissection table. Did Craig junior know about anatomy skills from Craig senior because a basic hands-on knowledge was handed down in his family-line? Phrenologists often attended criminal dissections and took plaster casts for posterity.
If so, it would be a striking irony of family history for Dr Wynne Weston Davies, who in his career has specialised in human anatomy teaching and dissection, to have benefitted from the unsavoury side of medical advancement without knowing his potential connection to its long body trafficking history and phrenology. It is here that we need to leave open the dissection room door to the future research enquiries of crime and family historians.
For the business of anatomy on the streets was social wallpaper, capable of concealing the most unscrupulous characters across the East-End of Victorian London. And in so doing, Jack may have had the method, motive and means to murder undetected in the Metropolis. No copyright clearance required for the map as more than 50 years since first printed. Dorset Street with the Britannia Public House on the left corner, c. Allen, It was boarded up by the Metropolitan Police.
No copyright clearance required as more than 50 years since first printed. No copyright clearance required as more than 50 years since first printed in a London newspaper. Begg, P. Bynum, W. Ryder et al. McKenzie was killed on 17 July by severance of the left carotid artery.
Several minor bruises and cuts were found on the body, discovered in Castle Alley, Whitechapel. One of the examining pathologists, Thomas Bond, believed this to be a Ripper murder, though his colleague George Bagster Phillips , who had examined the bodies of three previous victims, disagreed. It seems probable that the murder was committed elsewhere and that parts of the dismembered body were dispersed for disposal. Coles was killed on 13 February under a railway arch at Swallow Gardens, Whitechapel. Her throat was cut but the body was not mutilated. James Thomas Sadler was seen earlier with her and was arrested by the police, charged with her murder, and briefly thought to be the Ripper.
In addition to the eleven Whitechapel murders, commentators have linked other attacks to the Ripper. In the case of "Fairy Fay", it is unclear whether the attack was real or fabricated as a part of Ripper lore. Annie Millwood was admitted to Whitechapel workhouse infirmary with stab wounds in the legs and lower torso on 25 February She had a superficial cut on her throat, but it was possibly self-inflicted.
An arm belonging to the body was previously discovered floating in the River Thames near Pimlico , and one of the legs was subsequently discovered buried near where the torso was found. The mutilations were similar to those in the Pinchin Street case, where the legs and head were severed but not the arms. The Whitehall Mystery and the Pinchin Street case may have been part of a series of murders called the " Thames Mysteries ", committed by a single serial killer dubbed the "Torso killer".
The Crimes of Jack The Ripper by Paul Roland
She may have been another victim of the "Torso killer". John Gill, a seven-year-old boy, was found murdered in Manningham, Bradford , on 29 December His legs had been severed, his abdomen opened, his intestines drawn out, and his heart and one ear removed.
The similarities with the murder of Mary Kelly led to press speculation that the Ripper had killed him. Carrie Brown nicknamed "Shakespeare", reportedly for quoting Shakespeare's sonnets was strangled with clothing and then mutilated with a knife on 24 April in New York City. No organs were removed from the scene, though an ovary was found upon the bed, either purposely removed or unintentionally dislodged.
The surviving police files on the Whitechapel murders allow a detailed view of investigative procedure in the Victorian era. Forensic material was collected and examined. Suspects were identified, traced, and either examined more closely or eliminated from the inquiry. Modern police work follows the same pattern. A group of volunteer citizens in London's East End called the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee patrolled the streets looking for suspicious characters, partly because of dissatisfaction with the police effort.
They petitioned the government to raise a reward for information about the killer, and hired private detectives to question witnesses independently. Butchers, slaughterers, surgeons, and physicians were suspected because of the manner of the mutilations. A surviving note from Major Henry Smith, Acting Commissioner of the City Police , indicates that the alibis of local butchers and slaughterers were investigated, with the result that they were eliminated from the inquiry. Whitechapel was close to the London Docks ,  and usually such boats docked on Thursday or Friday and departed on Saturday or Sunday.
At the end of October, Robert Anderson asked police surgeon Thomas Bond to give his opinion on the extent of the murderer's surgical skill and knowledge. All five murders no doubt were committed by the same hand. In the first four the throats appear to have been cut from left to right, in the last case owing to the extensive mutilation it is impossible to say in what direction the fatal cut was made, but arterial blood was found on the wall in splashes close to where the woman's head must have been lying.
All the circumstances surrounding the murders lead me to form the opinion that the women must have been lying down when murdered and in every case the throat was first cut. Bond was strongly opposed to the idea that the murderer possessed any kind of scientific or anatomical knowledge, or even "the technical knowledge of a butcher or horse slaughterer". There is no evidence of any sexual activity with any of the victims,   yet psychologists suppose that the penetration of the victims with a knife and "leaving them on display in sexually degrading positions with the wounds exposed" indicates that the perpetrator derived sexual pleasure from the attacks.
The concentration of the killings around weekends and public holidays and within a few streets of each other has indicated to many that the Ripper was in regular employment and lived locally. Everyone alive at the time is now dead, and modern authors are free to accuse anyone "without any need for any supporting historical evidence". There are many and varied theories about the identity and profession of Jack the Ripper, but authorities are not agreed upon any of them, and the number of named suspects reaches over one hundred.
Over the course of the Ripper murders, the police, newspapers, and others received hundreds of letters regarding the case.
Hundreds of letters claimed to have been written by the killer himself,  and three of these in particular are prominent: the "Dear Boss" letter , the "Saucy Jacky" postcard and the "From Hell" letter. The "Dear Boss" letter, dated 25 September , was postmarked 27 September The handwriting was similar to the "Dear Boss" letter.
The handwriting and style is unlike that of the "Dear Boss" letter and "Saucy Jacky" postcard. The writer claimed that he "fried and ate" the missing kidney half. There is disagreement over the kidney; some contend that it belonged to Eddowes, while others argue that it was a macabre practical joke. Scotland Yard published facsimiles of the "Dear Boss" letter and the postcard on 3 October , in the ultimately vain hope that someone would recognise the handwriting.
Sims in the Sunday newspaper Referee implied scathingly that the letter was written by a journalist "to hurl the circulation of a newspaper sky high". Sims dated 23 September The Ripper murders mark an important watershed in the treatment of crime by journalists. After the murder of Nichols in early September, the Manchester Guardian reported that: "Whatever information may be in the possession of the police they deem it necessary to keep secret It is believed their attention is particularly directed to After the publication of the "Dear Boss" letter, "Jack the Ripper" supplanted "Leather Apron" as the name adopted by the press and public to describe the killer.
Sensational press reports combined with the fact that no one was ever convicted of the murders have confused scholarly analysis and created a legend that casts a shadow over later serial killers. The nature of the murders and of the victims drew attention to the poor living conditions in the East End  and galvanised public opinion against the overcrowded, insanitary slums.
In the immediate aftermath of the murders and later, "Jack the Ripper became the children's bogey man. In the s and s, he was depicted in film dressed in everyday clothes as a man with a hidden secret, preying on his unsuspecting victims; atmosphere and evil were suggested through lighting effects and shadowplay.
The Establishment as a whole became the villain, with the Ripper acting as a manifestation of upper-class exploitation. In addition to the contradictions and unreliability of contemporary accounts, attempts to identify the real killer are hampered by the lack of surviving forensic evidence. Jack the Ripper features in hundreds of works of fiction and works which straddle the boundaries between fact and fiction, including the Ripper letters and a hoax Diary of Jack the Ripper.
More than non-fiction works deal exclusively with the Jack the Ripper murders, making it one of the most written-about true-crime subjects. There is no waxwork figure of Jack the Ripper at Madame Tussauds ' Chamber of Horrors , unlike murderers of lesser fame, in accordance with their policy of not modelling persons whose likeness is unknown. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the serial killer.
For other uses, see Jack the Ripper disambiguation. Unidentified serial killer. Main article: Whitechapel murders. Main article: Jack the Ripper suspects. Oxford University Press. Subscription required for online version. Cook, pp. A nephrological view of the Whitechapel murders in ", Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation , 23 10 : —, doi : Perry, Jr. Jack the Ripper and the London Press. Yale University Press. Marriott, Trevor, p. I Caught Crippen. London: Blackie and Son. April Madame Tussaud's Chamber of Horrors. London: Constable. Begg, Paul Jack the Ripper: The Definitive History.
London: Pearson Education.